Why an ARM Mortgage Deserves Your Attention
ARM mortgages are a major source of confusion, but do not merit the negative connotation that follows the term. The financial crisis of 2008 comes to mind when many consumers hear the term ARM. You may not have known that ARM mortgages made up over 49 percent of all mortgages back in 2005. That sure explains why there were so many foreclosures.
ARM (adjustable rate mortgage) mortgages certainly have a firm place in the marketplace today.
We are going to go over what exactly an adjustable rate mortgage is, how it works, and offer some real life examples. Finally, we will discuss who might actually want to enter into one of these mortgages.
An ARM Defined
To explain what an ARM is, it might be easier to compare it to a conventional mortgage. We all know that a conventional or “fixed” mortgage has an interest rate and payment that never changes throughout the life of the instrument. Whether you have a 15 or 30 year mortgage, the consumer makes the same payment each month regardless of the changes in the interest rate environment.
An adjustable rate mortgage has an interest rate that can change based upon market conditions. It is usually tied to a mortgage rate index.
We will answer one question right now that many people have.
Are adjustable rate mortgages bad? NO, they are not bad when you understand what you are getting into.
The only reason anyone would agree to an ARM is for the lower payment. All adjustable rate mortgages start out with a “teaser period”. This period acts like a fixed rate mortgage. The interest rate and payment will not change. This period is usually 3 or 5 years. But it could be less or even more. It all depends on the type you decide to choose.
Also, they are attractive to consumers who don’t plan to spend too long in their residence. If a buyer knows that they tend to move a lot, or that a job or other life event in the future will force them to relocate, then this might be the perfect arrangement.
Adjustments and Caps
Before we get into real world examples, there are a few other details a consumer should be aware of. Each ARM will have adjustment periods and caps. Many of these mortgages will adjust once a year after the “teaser rate” has expired. However, some rates can change every 6 months.
Caps will limit the amount the rate can increase over the life of the loan. For example, if you entered into a 15 year ARM, and the interest rate cap was 5%, and by year 9 the rate had already increased by that latter amount, the rate could NO LONGER go any higher.
The adjustment periods can be very confusing. It’s possible that although interest rates don’t go up, your payment still might. This is why so many buyers found themselves in hot water during the 2008 financial crisis. A good ARM calculator can show you live examples of how a mortgage payment can changed based upon the rate.
Here is an ARM Mortgage example:
Suppose the maximum amount rates can go up in an adjustment period of your mortgage is 1%. The mortgage index your rate is tied to goes up 2%. By law, the maximum amount your lender can increase your rate will be 1%. But that is just for that period. Even if rates then don’t go up or down the following period, you can bet that your lender will raise your rate another 1%. They will make up for the 1% they were unable to increase from the previous period.
Many consumers aren’t aware that the above example can occur. Also, many homeowners think they can get out of their house before the “teaser period” is over. But if they cannot sell their house or the market value declines, they may find themselves in a difficult situation.
Real Life Examples
Here are some of the more popular ARM mortgage that might make sense today.
3/1 or 5/1:
The first number you see is the “teaser period”. In essence your mortgage rate and payment will be fixed for the first 3 or 5 years. Then the second number represents how often the rate will adjust until you sell the house or pay off the mortgage. In both of these cases, the mortgage rates will adjust every year after that teaser period expires.
There is also a 10/1 which might be the closest you will get to a fixed rate mortgage. It allows you 10 years of a fixed payment. Considering, this is a long time and gives you ample time to consider your options
3/3 or 5/5:
Again, the first number represents how long the initial fixed period will last. Now in this example, the rate can only adjust once every 3 or 5 years depending on which one you choose. So if you chose the 5/5, your rate would adjust in years 6, 11, 16, 21, and 26 if you completed a full 30 year term.
2 Step Mortgage:
This type is very easy to understand. It has only one adjustment period. So in essence, you pay one rate for one portion of the mortgage and another rate for the next.
Of course all ARM’s will have different rates. Usually the shorter the initial teaser period, the lower the interest rate will be.
Other items of Concern
Remember that banks are not in the business of losing money. Be aware that many of these mortgage instruments may carry prepayment penalties. If you think that you can sell or pay off your home early, then you may discover there are heavy fees to do so. You will want to ask the lender about any penalties that exist on your loan. Even if you go with a 3/1 ARM and decide to sell the house after just 2 years, you may find yourself responsible for thousands of additional dollars.
What to Take Away:
Most people will suggest to go with the conventional mortgage because your payment will remain a consistent price; this is perfect for people on a fixed income. Look over here for some great information about what you need to get pre-approved for a mortgage. But many intelligent buyers have profited off ARM’s in the last decade or so thanks to an unusually low interest rate period.